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It featured prominently when cocoa, groundnuts, etc, were the main sources of revenue for Nigeria. According to the Ijaw National Co-ordinating Committee, for instance, the present composition of the commission excludes representatives of Ijaw oil producing communities in Ondo, Edo and Delta states (National Concord, 11 December 1992:B2). Thus, although the Babangida Administration established a total of 11 additional states during its eight-year tenure (1985-1993), none of these new units was constituted from Rivers State.

At this rate every household will become a state the real issues are not addressed properly. The Government action followed the gruesome murder, earlier in the month, by a group of Ogoni youths of four ”moderate” Ogoni leaders suspected of collaborating with the Government to undermine Saro-Wiwa’s militant advocacy of the Ogoni cause. The derivation principle has, indeed, been progressively de-emphasized as a criterion of revenue sharing in Nigeria. 31In response to the growing agitations among the oil-producing communities, the Federal Government in 1991 announced a new policy designed to give some satisfaction to the development needs and demands of these communities. Ethnic Minority Problems and Oil Politics: A Case Study of Rivers State.

They were charged for murder before a 3-man special tribunal, despite pleas by concerned observers and Saro-Wiwa himself that the detainees be arraigned before a regular court of law (The News, 28 November 1994:15).

The policy required the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) and its joint-venture multinational oil companies to allocate three percent of their total capital investments to community development purposes. Viewed from the perspective of ethnic minority in the literature, it has been argued that state creation is capable of soothing the frayed nerves of minority ethnic groups. The minority problem inNigeriais multi-dimensional. This is in the nature of redistributive policies, which characteristically involve the gratification of some interests or demands at the expense of others. Indeed, Shell estimates that over 60 per cent of spills and leakages affecting its installations are caused by sabotage (The Guardian, 28 December 1992:7). Have there been cases of boundary disputes in Ebonyi andAbiaStatessince they were created? When it was created, Yenegoa was all swampy and bushy and they had only one filling station at that time; but today, it has become a hub of urban attraction for all kinds of businesses. Portail de ressources électroniques en sciences humaines et sociales.

However, state creation has never resolved ethnic conflicts instead; it led to fractionalization of ethnic groups. Such mischief makers have always done so for their selfish interest (African Concord, 3 December 1990:25). They, therefore, require massive injection of money if their conditions, and standards of living, are to compare with what obtains elsewhere in the country where possibilities of agriculture and diversified industry are much greater (Asiodu, 1993:36). Merci, nous transmettrons rapidement votre demande à votre bibliothèque. 35 The Political Bureau also recommended the immediate enactment of a national legal instrument on human, minority and socioeconomic rights, the protection of minority languages through explicit legislations in the states, and the establishment of inter-governmental advisory boards on minority problems (Nigeria, 1987:69). 25MOSOP, on the other hand, has been remarkable for its role in internationalizing the struggle of the oil producing communities.

The minorities’ fear of domination by the three major groups and exclusion from much needed scarce resources was a legitimate concern that has led to demonstrations and agitations for the creation of more states. 24AMOS and MOSOP remain, perhaps, the most outstanding of these associations.

\(\overset{\underset{\mathrm{def}}{}}{=} \), Origin and Evolution of Federalism in Nigeria, Nature and Structure of Nigerian Federalism, Minority Issues and the Creation of States, Causes and Effects of Nigerian Federalism.

Nigeria as a country needs a brand new constitution,and a new constitution comes into existence when the old one becomes obsolete,ineffective and filled with irregularities. Sir Henry Willink Commission. To assess the fiscal viability of Ebonyi and Abia States. But they subsequently had deep disagreements on policy and strategy with Saro-Wiwa and other militant activists in the body. Indeed, as from April 1993, Mr Saro-Wiwa was subjected to multiple modes of official harassment, including detention, confinement to his home in Port-Harcourt, and more detentions. The four murdered leaders were Chief Edward Kobani, a former commissioner in the Rivers State Government; Chief Albert Badey, a former Secretary to the State Government; Chief Samuel Orage, another former commissioner in the State Government; and Chief Theophilus Orage, an elder brother of Samuel Orage and Secretary of the Gokana Council of Chiefs. It is also true that at independence in 1960, 50 per cent of mining rents and royalties were allocated to the region of derivation.

The discussion is divided into three broad parts. 1 This section of the work discusses ethnic minority problems in contemporary Nigeria, with emphasis on the grievances of the oil-producing communities of Rivers State. However, these provisions clearly refer to ownership of mineral wealth and not ownership of land which, under the practice of the constitution, remains vested in the states.
The derivation or origin principle of distribution stipulates that a significant proportion of the revenues collected in a locality should be returned to that locality or segment. Organizing and providing relevant educational content, resources and information for students. He noted it is so especially in the specific area of the insecurity of the minorities in the country. Every material on this site is authentic and was extracted from the complete available project.Click to GET IT NOW, MS-WORD DOC || CHAPTERS: 1-5 || PAGES: 75 || PRICE: ₦3000, PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF STATE CREATION IN NIGERIA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EBONYI STATE AND ABIA STATE.
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Fundamental Human Rights (FHR) should be entrenched in the constitution to safeguard the interests of the minority.

The study intends to examine the following null hypotheses: H01: Ebonyi andAbiaStates are not fiscally viable, H02: there have been cases of boundary disputes since the creation of Ebonyi andAbiaStates. 27The resort to attacks on oil company installations has invariably provoked violent confrontations between the oil producing communities and law enforcement agencies. OpenEdition est un portail de ressources électroniques en sciences humaines et sociales. Once a state is created, its capital has a way of coming together to become an urban centre of attraction over time. (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1980:93). Today,Nigeriahas thirty-six states; still there is demand for more states and complaints on unequal revenue allocation by the Federal Government (Nse, 2009).

The progressive diminution of the derivation principle has been accompanied by a corresponding tendency officially to accept the need for the establishment of special funds for the ecological rehabilitation of mineral producing areas. But the Ogonis claimed that the army was used by the Government to ”create a false sense of security in them while the Andonis gained the upper hand.” (Newswatch, 1 November 1993:25). 71What the official resort to tough tactics and intimidatory rhetoric immediately suggests is the failure of the redistributive and reorganizational policies of the Government to successfully defuse ethnic minority discontent. Adresse : Institute of African Studies University of Ibadan Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria. As the number of newly-created states increased from 3 to 4, to 12, and then to the present 36, former majorities become disillusioned with loss of power, while former minorities soon become major groups who dominate other smaller minorities. 22The Ogoni Bill of Rights, which was presented to the Government and people of Nigeria in November 1990, represents perhaps the classic example of the use of written memoranda to articulate the cause of the oil producing minority communities.

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